Tag Archives: Kiera Cameron

Metamaterials and the Science of Invisibility

Invisibility is just one of the many features of Kiera Cameron‘s (Rachel Nichols) City Protective Services (CPS) uniform. A cloaking device, such as the one used by CPS officers, deflects light around it rendering it invisible. Such a device would be based on metamaterials; an artificial material specifically engineered to have properties not be found in nature.

Metamaterials

Prof. Sir John Pendry, the father of metamaterials.

The idea for such a material was first proposed by English physicist, Sir John Pendry in 2006 in a paper published in Science, “Controlling Electromagnetic Fields”. In this paper, Pendry describes how electromagnetic fields can be redirected around an object thereby rendering it invisible.

The way a material affects light is largely determined by its chemical composition. A metamaterial is different because its properties are derived from its physical structure; there are repeating microscopic patterns on the surface. Scientists can engineer this structure to bend light around an object thereby rendering it invisible.

Radar Absorbing Materials

HMS Argus using dazzle camouflage in 1918

HMS Argus using dazzle camouflage in 1918

Becoming invisible has always been an important part of military strategy since the 18th century and the emergence of the long-range rifle. Soldiers would camouflage themselves by either dressing in forest green or field grey. During World War I, troops started to experiment with “dazzle camouflage”.

The striped pattern of the dazzle camouflage is a poor choice to hide something as it draws attention to a person or an object. The pattern does have one advantage–it makes it difficult to estimate an enemy’s range. This concept was soon used on ships as it made it difficult for an observer to know exactly whether the stern or the bow was or whether the ship was moving towards or away from an observer’s position.

Dazzle camouflage continued to be used until World War II but its effectiveness was severely limited with the introduction of radar. The Germans sought to hide their craft with the use of radar-absorbing materials, the earliest of which was used on submarine periscopes and consisted of a layered coating of graphite particles and other semiconducting materials embedded in a rubber matrix. This material was effective at reducing reflections in the 20 cm radar band range used by the Allies.

Metamaterials

The Horten Ho’s flying wing design made it the first stealth aircraft.

The Germans went further by incorporating carbon-impregnated plywood in the Horten Ho 229–the first ever pure flying wing powered by jet engines. It was believed that the carbon powder in the glue would shield the aircraft from detection by the British early warning ground-based radar, known as Chain Home.

Carbon is a cheap material with low conductivity. This makes it possible tailor conductivity from synthetic materials made from the element. Conductivity can be very poor (if made from insulated grains of carbon black or soot) or very high (if made from connected chains of graphite). When an electric field encounters a carbon-based absorber, it induces electrical currents in the material which are then dissipated as heat.

Structure Dependent Properties

The hint that a material’s shape and structure at the nanoscale could affect its properties came in the 1990s. The British company, Marconi Materials Technology manufactured a carbon material capable of hiding battleships from radar but had no idea how it worked. They approached John Pendry to find the answer. Pendry discovered the electrical properties that allowed the material to absorb radiation didn’t come from the carbon itself but from the shape of its long thin fibers.

This was a significant discovery. Instead of changing a material’s chemistry to alter its behavior, scientists could alter the internal structure at very fine scales–smaller than a wavelength of light–to get the same effect.

All electromagnetic radiation has two components: a magnetic field and an electric field. As an electromagnetic wave strikes a material the atoms respond like a tiny magnet–its electrons move in a circle in response to the magnetic component and back and forth in response to the electrical component.

Each split-ring is designed to respond to the electromagnetic field in a certain way. When put together in an array with other split-rings, the periodic construction of many of these cells interacts with the electromagnetic wave as if these were homogeneous materials. This is similar to how light interacts with everyday materials, e.g. glass.

Each split-ring is designed to respond to the electromagnetic field in a certain way. When put together in an array with other split-rings, the periodic construction of many of these cells interacts with the electromagnetic wave as if these were homogeneous materials. This is similar to how light interacts with everyday materials, e.g. glass.

We can also create a magnetic field by looping a current around a circle. This magnetic field is more concentrated in the center of the loop than outside. Pendry hypothesized that by creating loops of a non-magnetic material, such as copper, he could create a similar magnetic response typically found in magnetic materials. Scientists would be able to tune how electrons move by tuning the size and shape of these loops. This controls how incoming radiation is bent when it encounters an object.

Pendry wondered how far this new insight could go. Would it be possible to change the magnetic properties of a material by simply changing its fine structure alone and not its chemistry? If so, then a theoretical non-magnetic metamaterial could mimic some of the properties of a magnetic substance like iron.

A split-ring resonator array constructed using copper split-ring resonatorss and wires mounted sheets of fiberglass circuit boards. The copper rings respond to the magnetic component while the mounted wires respond to the electroc field of an EM wave.

A split-ring resonator array constructed using copper split-ring resonatorss and wires mounted sheets of fiberglass circuit boards. The copper rings respond to the magnetic component while the mounted wires respond to the electroc field of an EM wave.

Pendry thought of taking this a step further. By cutting the loops, he created what is known as a magnetic resonator that acts like a switch. This switch would allow him to change a metamaterial’s magnetic properties on command. In so doing, by combining what he learned from Marconi’s radar absorbing material he figured a way to manipulate electromagnetic radiation. This makes invisibility possible for Continuum’s CPS officers.

Bending Light around Objects

Metamaterials

An example how an object appears invisible using mirrors.

Invisibility can be considered the supreme form of camouflage as it does not reveal anything about an object to an observer. We can accomplish this using a plane mirror and two parabolic mirrors to reflect light around an object. The object becomes invisible from two sides.

Metamaterials make an object invisible by bending light around it.

Metamaterials make an object invisible by bending light around it. (Image from Pendry et.. al. Science (2006): 1780-1782).

A metamaterials invisibility cloak will work in almost the same way as the parabolic mirrors by steering radiation around an object. The many tiny elements of a metamaterial–the fine scale structures–pick up rays or light from the far side of an observer and relay that ray around the material. When the ray arrives at the side facing the observer, it is re-emitted in the direction it would have taken as if the object was not there at all. Unlike the parabolic mirror trick, a metamaterial cloak will have to do so in all directions. To do this, we need a three-dimensional array of metamaterials

The fishnet metamaterial could one day become the invisibility cloak of the future.

The fishnet metamaterial could one day become the invisibility cloak of the future.

One way of accomplishing this is to create a “fishnet”. In this case the metamaterial is made of alternating sheets of glass and silver containing rectangular holes. This design was developed in 2008 at the University of California Berkeley. As light travels through the fishnet, the alternating layers bend light in unusual ways. The research group at Berkeley hope that this array will eventually be able to guide visible light around an object.

Other uses of Metamaterials

The use of metamaterials extend beyond manipulating the electromagnetic spectrum. It can also be used to create acoustic and tactile cloaks, preventing a user from being heard or felt. The acoustic cloak is made from perforated plastic sheets arranged in a pyramid. When it is placed over an object, sound waves act as if nothing is there, as if there was only a flat surface in their path.

The sound cloak is made of perforated plastic sheets in a periodic pattern.

The sound cloak is made of perforated plastic sheets in a periodic pattern.

The acoustic cloak alters a sound’s path in the same way the invisibility cloak does. Sound doesn’t penetrate into the pyramid but is rerouted in a way to create the impression that noting is there.

While it may one day be possible to completely hide future CPS officers in the visible spectrum and from being detected by sonar, what happens when they bump into something or, per chance, someone bumps into them? Metamaterials can also be designed to create a mechanical cloak.

Metamaterials prevent the object at the bottom from being felt.

Metamaterials prevent the object at the bottom from being felt.


Like the acoustic invisibility cloak, the tactile cloak is made from a periodic polymer array, the properties of which are determined by its special structure. AN object placed under a blanket or layers of foam would still be felt under the blanket. When an object is placed under this “cloak” it redirects stress in such a way that its shape can’t be felt when the cloak is touched.

The CPS Invisibility Suit: Is it possible?

The fishnet design has the advantage that it can handle a wide range of wavelengths; previous designs could only cloak at a specific wavelength.There are some disadvantages, however. It only works on flat surfaces and not the sleek CPS uniform we see Kiera wearing.

There is another limitation to wearing an invisible CPS uniform: an officer won’t be able to see out for the same reason you can’t see in. While the suit is invisible in a certain range of wavelengths–the visible spectrum–it is visible in other areas of the spectrum.

We know that a CPS officer’s cybernetic visual implants allow them to see in other parts of the spectrum, in the infra-red and possibly ultraviolet range. In a previous article, we discuss this ability may be based on graphene contact lens, a hexagonal mesh of carbon atoms. A CPS officer can activate their visual implants to see in other parts of the spectrum when they turn invisible.

We can only imagine what tech is hidden in Kiera’s CPS uniform. Though she has revealed some of her suits abilities to us we can only imagine what more she can do.

The Science of Continuum’s Cybernetic Visual Implants Seeing the Invisible with Night Vision Contact Lens

In the sixth episode of season two, “Second Truths”, we see Kiera go up against the mysterious serial killer known in 2077 as the Ouroboros Killer. Using her knowledge of the case in 2077, Kiera (Rachel Nichols) discovers that there isn’t one but two killers working together. We see Kiera’s cellular memory review/recall or CMR in action and that her cybernetic visual implants allow her to see in low light and the infra-red spectrum

Continuum Night Vision

Cybernetic visual implants allows Kiera to see in low light levels to capture a killer.

We also see a further use of Kiera’s night vision capabilities in the episode “Minute of Silence”. Both Kiera and Carlos (Victor Webster) track a high-tech free running thief who has stolen an invisibility cloak from Hyper Stealth. Though invisible to visible light, Kiera’s CMR picks up the thief’s heat signature and she and Carlos are able to make a quick arrest.

Continuum Night Vision

While the invisibility cloak may bend visible light and make our thief invisible, it doesn’t do the same for infrared.

Night vision isn’t exactly new. It has been used by the military as far back as World War II. Present day night vision devices look like binoculars strapped onto a soldier’s helmet; not like Kiera’s cybernetic visual implants which have been neatly implanted onto her eyes. A device like this may not be that far off in the future. Engineers from the University of Michigan have built and tested a broadband photodetector using graphene, a honeycomb lattice of carbon atoms that is just one atom thick. Their findings was published in 2014 in the prestigious journal Nature Nanotechnology. The study’s authors hope this will one day lead to night vision contact lens.

The Science of Night Vision

Night Vision

Spectrum showing the visible portion of light. This accounts for a very small portion of the entire spectrum.

It should come as no surprise that many animals have better night vision than humans do. They can either see a much wider range of the light spectrum or see at much lower light levels than we do. Humans, instead, use technology to improve upon what nature hasn’t given us. This works in one of two ways: either by image enhancement or by thermal imaging.

In image enhancement, low light levels, that are imperceptible to our eyes, are amplified to a point where we can observe an image. In thermal imaging, the infrared part of the spectrum is captured with an infrared detector and converted into visible light to produce an image.

The Miracle of Graphene

Night Vision

Graphene is an atomic-scale monolayer honeycomb lattice made of carbon atoms.

A futuristic science fiction device could be based on nanotechnology and made using graphene, a sheet of carbon that is just one atom thick. The carbon atoms form strong covalent bonds and are arranged in a hexagonal shape. This gives graphene unparalleled strength not seen in most materials; its breaking strength is over 100 times greater than a hypothetical steel film of the same thickness.

Night Vision

A lump of graphite, a graphene transistor and a tape dispenser. Donated to the Nobel Museum in Stockholm by Andre Geim and Konstantin Novoselov in 2010.

The material was discovered in 2004 by two University of Manchester physicists, Andre Geim and Kostya Novoselov. The two scientist pulled tiny bits of graphene from a lump of graphite, the same material found in a “lead” pencil, by sandwiching a graphite flake between some Scotch Tape. The tape layers was pulled apart to separate the atomic layers. They continued this process several times until a single atomic layer was left on the Scotch Tape.

Photograph of graphene in transmitted light. This one-atom-thick crystal can be seen with the naked eye because it absorbs approximately 2.3% of white light.

Photograph of graphene in transmitted light. This one-atom-thick crystal can be seen with the naked eye because it absorbs approximately 2.3% of white light.

What may come as a surprise to the average non-scientist is that no special equipment is needed to view this single atomic layer of carbon atoms. Graphene is considerable opaque considering it’s only one atom thick. The layer absorbs 2.3% of the light incident on it making it very easy to see with the naked eye.

If this 2.3% doesn’t sound impressive, that is because it really isn’t. Compared to a material like silicon, which is used to make solar cells, it doesn’t absorb as many photons. However, it does have one advantage over silicon–it has no band gap.

Night Vision

The bandgap for insulators, semiconductors and conductors.

Band gaps exist in both insulators and semiconductors and is the energy needed to get electrons flowing in either material. Metals conduct easily because their valence and conduction bands overlap and require no additional energy to get them moving. Semiconductors can get this energy from light. If a photon with enough energy strikes the surface of a semiconductor, it knocks and electron loose and the material starts conducting. If there isn’t enough then it remains an insulator.

If a photon has more energy than the required amount, then the extra energy is lost unless it has twice the energy of the band gap. In this case the photon will liberate two electrons. This is the reason why, under ideal conditions, the silicon based solar cells maximum efficiency is about 30%; they can only absorb photons with energy in a tiny range. Graphene has, what is known as, a zero band gap which means they can absorb photons of all energies. So while it doesn’t absorb as many photons as silicon, it makes better use of the much wider range of photons that it does absorb. This is of considerable interest to scientists as they could become highly efficient solar cells.

Kiera’s Cybernetic Visual Implants

Kiera Cameron's Cellular Memory Review being installed during her first day as a Protector for the City Protective Services.

Kiera Cameron’s Cellular Memory Review being installed during her first day as a Protector for the City Protective Services.

Kiera’s cybernetic visual implants form part of her CMR or cellular memory review. The CMR is based on a liquid chip technology that interfaces with the visual implants to give users a Heads-Up Display. The visual implants also allow its users to see beyond the visual range, to detect infra-red radiation and see in low light conditions.

Present day night vision devices are clunky. Devices that can see in the low-IR region typically requires detectors to be cryogenically cooled to reduce their atom’s thermal vibrations as much as possible. Neither of these characteristics are ideal for the future of law enforcement. Future City Protective Services’ (CPS) Protectors will need to carry liquid-nitrogen cryogenic backpacks for their visual implants to work effectively.

Graphene may solve this problem as it is also able to absorb infra-red photons at room temperature. The problem is that it doesn’t absorb a whole lot of infra-red photons. Its sensitivity is about one hundred to one thousand times lower than any commercial device on the market; any signal it produces will be too weak to produce an image. Researchers at the University of Michigan, led by Zhaohui Zhong, have found a way to capture and amplify the signal into a device smaller than a pinky nail.

Night Vision

An insulating layer is sandwiched between two sheets of graphene to create an optical transistor.

The IR detector is created by sandwiching an insulating layer between two sheets of graphene. A tiny electrical current runs through the bottom sheet. Electrons are released as infrared photons strike the top graphene layer. These free electrons quantum tunnel through the insulating layer where changes in current flow in the bottom layer is measured and observed. Zhong and his team were able to use this to determine the brightness of light striking the upper layer and create a viable method of detecting infra-red radiation in something that could, one day, fit inside a contact lens.

We have seen Kiera monitor physiological function and identify chemicals using her CMR. This graphene-based device could also, one day, go beyond military and law-enforcement applications to use IR-wavelengths to monitor blood flow as well as identify chemicals from their heat signature. Could the tech we see on Continuum become a part of wearable electronics that will expand our vision and provide us with another way to work and interact with our environment?

Continuum, Time Travel and The Grandfather Paradox

The last episode to Continuum’s second season (“Second Time”) sees a grief stricken Alec Sadler (Erik Knudsen use the time travel device to go back in time to save the life of Emily (Magda Apanowicz). A shocked and distraught Keira (Rachel Nichols) looks on as Alec disappears from the time line in a flash of light. What is everyone’s favorite Protector to do now that the time travel device no longer exists? Is she forever trapped in the present unable to do anything about Alec’s betrayal?

If you were hoping to find out what Kiera would do now that she is stuck in the present then don’t hold your breath. Alec reemerges in the past–one week in the past to be exact–to create a new timeline while Kiera is captured by the Freelancers. The original timeline, as explained by Head Freelancer Catherine (Rachael Crawford) no longer exists. The intense roller-coaster ride and the jaw-dropping events of the last season, from the pinning of Agent Gardiner’s (Nicholas Lea) murder on Kiera to Carlos Fonnegra (Victor Webster) leaving the Vancouver Police Department to join Julian (Richard Harmon) and Liber8 never happened.

So what are Continuum fans to do? Are we simply to ignore the last episodes of Season Two as if they never happened? That remains an open question.
The Season Three premier certainly continues with the same action packed intensity from which the last season ended but it does something else–it explains the time travel rules upon which the show is based. It also appears that the show’s writers have put a lot of thought and effort into ensuring that these rules are as consistent as possible, especially where the issues of paradoxes are concerned.

The Paradoxes of Time Lines

Continuum Time Travel

Head Freelancer Catherine explains that time travel is not immutable and is like a brancing tree that needs to be pruned.

“Destiny is not set. Time is not immutable. The continuum is like a tree. It can grow wild or it can be cultivated.”

In the premier episode, head Freelancer Catherine explains the concept of timelines and the physics of time travel to Kiera. While there is only one timeline, it can be changed. Go back far enough in time and you can change everything to create an entirely new and different timeline.

This answers some of the paradoxial questions of the last two seasons, if Maddie (Olivia Ryan-Stern) was really Kellog’s (Stephen Lobo) grandmother, then why didn’t he pop out of existence in the current timeline. One idea put forward by Alec was that she may not have been Matthew’s grandmother. It turns out she could have been and to understand why, we must look into how Continuum’s physics of time travel resolves the Grandfather Paradox.

The Grandfather Paradox


The grandfather paradox is one of the more well-known time travel paradoxes and was first described by the science fiction writer René Barjavel in his 1943 book “Le Voyageur Imprudent(Future Times Three). In this scenario, our time traveler goes back in time before his grandfather is married and kills him. The paradox is that the time traveler is never born and can not go back in time to kill his grandfather. His grandfather is free to meet the grandmother, get married, have kids and our time traveler is eventually born. When the time traveler gets older, he steps into his time-machine and goes back in time to kill his grandfather. This cycle continues ad infinitum and without resolution.

Recognizing this vulnerability, in the Season One episode “A Test of Time”, Kagame (Tony Amendola) decides to test this paradox and possibly get rid of their “Protector problem” once and for all. Liber8 start by killing young women with Kiera’s grandmother’s name–“Lily Jones”. During the course of the episode Liber8 take additional insurance by planning to kill Kellog’s grandmother; revenge against Kellog for helping Kiera. Travis (Roger Cross) shoots Kellog’s grandmother and everyone sees that Kellog does not disappear–the grandfather paradox does not apply to them. Or does it?

According to Catherine’s explanation of time travel, killing Maddie creates a new time line. In this new timeline Kellog will not be born and many of the events in Kellog’s life, from his meeting Kiera to his part in Liber8 will never happen. In a sense the very timeline that Kiera so desperately tries to protect no longer exists but this doesn’t mean that Kellog’s absence changes things so completely that the future Kiera and the Freelancers are trying to protect never happens. Kiera’s primary concern is her family but everything can still go according to plan even though Kellog no longer exists in the new timeline.

Catherine and the Freelancers appear to subscribe to the Great Man Theory, a 19th-century idea in which history can be explained by the impact of “great men”, or heroes. As Kellog is not one of these supposed “great men” then many key events, such as Alec’s rise to power and discovery of time travel, will still happen. This means that Kiera’s family will still exist in the future. As they don’t know who Kellog is, they will also be completely unchanged by the ripple effect of Maddie’s death. The reason Catherine and the Freelancers aren’t too concerned of Maddie’s death is because her impact on the future is negligible–her life or death changes nothing. Talk about a major blow to one’s ego.

Resolving the Grandfather Paradox

Continuum’s time-travel physics provides a logically consistent way to resolve the Grandfather Paradox. A time traveler who kills his own ancestor or whose ancestor is murdered won’t vanish from existence. Rather, the timeline he came from will disappear to be replaced by a new timeline in which he will never be born. As our time traveler is a refugee from the previous timeline that no longer exists, he won’t pop out of existence and is safe from the ramifications of the Grandfather Paradox.

This single and mutable timeline idea not only overcomes the logical paradox and inconsistencies of the Grandfather Paradox but others as well , such as the Bootstrap and Predestination Paradoxes–something we will examine in future blog posts. It also highlights how dangerous time travel is in the series. As time is not immutable, a nefarious time traveler can use a time machine as a weapon to mold the future to achieve for personal gain. Jason has hinted that the Freelancers have meddled with humanity’s history before. The extent of this meddling remains to be seen.

The Freelancers have the power to monitor the continuum and stop people from making these changes to the timeline but this doesn’t mean they are the good guys. Catherine has admitted they see themselves as guardians to the continuum, in essence, the ones who “prune” the tree. This makes you wonder whose interests they represent and whether those interests are the best for everyone. This is interesting because the series has yet to really identify who the good guys and bad guys really are.

While we may at times root for Kiera, as the series progresses we may discover we never should have. We have two Alecs in this timeline. In the last timeline we have seen hints that Alec could be turning to the “dark side” and become the man to usher in a totalitarian and dystopian future of 2077. All that may have been changed with Emily’s death. It is amazing the difference a week makes. Could we see Alec Sadler fight on both sides of this temporal war? Your guess is as good as mine.

Time Loops and the Paradoxes of Continuum’s Time Travel Physics

The season finale to Continuum leaves the viewer with lots of surprises and questions that are sure to keep them engaged until Season Three begins in 2014. While Season Two doesn’t specifically answer questions regarding the rules to time travel used in the show, it does provide some hints and insights on what might be happening. If anything we can be certain that the rules are going to be as complex and interesting as the plot so far. To get up to speed you should read my first article, “The Wibbly-Wobbly of Continuum“.

Future Alec sends everyone back

We learn at the end of Season One and the start of Season Two that the future Alec (William B. Davis) is responsible for sending everyone back in time. It also turns out that there is a specific reason for sending Kiera back – to either prevent the future from happening or to prevent him from going down a certain path. It is apparent that future Alec regrets many of the things that have taken place when he tells his son, Jason (Ian Tracey), “Liber8 wouldn’t exist if it weren’t for me. Perhaps they are just a manifestation of my conscience.”

But Kiera’s presence isn’t without problems. Escher/Marc Sadler (Hugh Dillon) berates Kiera when he tells her

“You carry destruction in your wake, you’re the time bomb.”

Given that Escher is a former Freelancer, he may have some insight from his former occupation. Warren (Adrian Holmes), one of the enigmatic “Freelancers”, also hints that Kiera’s presence is an “anomaly” and a “glitch in the continuum” and it appears that Warren was ready to kill Kiera to “fix” things.

This raises several questions. If Kiera is a problem, why was she sent back in the first place? Did future Alec know of the trouble she would cause when he sent her back? In Season One, we witness the the “first” meeting between the future Alec and Kiera and it seems that he knew who she was. So while this was a first time meeting for Kiera, it certainly isn’t for Alec.

We Know Things can change

Freelancers and Continuum

Kiera meets with fellow time traveler Jason, who informs her that he’s being followed by other time travelers from the future he calls “Freelancers.”


One of the mysteries behind the show’s time travel physics is whether there is a single timeline or multiple ones. If there is a single timeline, for events to happen as they are supposed to, they must follow the Novikov self-consistency principle. This principle asserts if an event exists that would give rise to a paradox, or to any “change” to the past whatsoever, then the probability of that event is zero.

This means that for the events that leads up to Liber8’s trip back in time, then all the events in the past need to lead up to that one event. Alec can’t decide not to send Liber8 back in time as doing so ironically creates the corporate run future. In short, this makes it impossible to create time paradoxes which is different from a multiple timeline scenario where anything can happen. In this case, when Kiera and Liber8 arrive in 2012, they create a new timeline that has no impact on the timeline they came from.

In “Second Thoughts” (Season 2, Episode 3), Jason tells Kiera about the Freelancers and that Escher is also one of them. It’s not clear if Jason knows that Escher is his grand-father but it is likely. He seems to think that Escher is dangerous and not a person to be trusted. Jason also tells Kiera that:

“You know, you won’t be the same person when you left”.

This is one of the clues that might be telling us that we are dealing with a single timeline. If a person was to return to the 2077, they might take the place of their “double” and that person’s memories will eventually be replaced by new memories of the new timeline as if the old one never happened.

This gives credibility to the “time loop” theory of a single timeline. But the implication of a single timeline has always been that for the events that lead Liber8 to arrive in 2012, then everything must lead up to them being sent back in time in 2077. Jason could be saying this doesn’t have to be the case; everyone doesn’t have to follow a particular script.

The fact that things can be changed becomes all the more clear in “Second Truths” (Season 2, Episode 6). Kiera solves and stops a serial killer whose case file was unsolved in 2077 in future. Using information gleaned from the future is an example of the Bootstrap Paradox where information sent back from the future becomes the very information that was brought back in the first place.

The Bootstrap Paradox is problematic as it implies that the information was never created. It exists specifically because the loop occurs. This episode is important because it establishes one thing — paradoxes are possible in the Continuum Universe. This means that we don’t have to stick to Novikov even if we are dealing with a single timeline.

As her memories remain unchanged upon solving the case, then according to Jason, she won’t experience any changes to her memories until she returns to 2077. The events of her examining the unsolved cold case in the future have been wiped out and no longer exist. We don’t know what events have replaced of that day. All we know is that it didn’t happen. This has some profound repercussion for Kellog.

What this means if or when she returns, remains to be seen. The multiple timeline scenario posed one problem. If 2077 Alec sends Liber8 back in time, he can never achieve his plan to stop the dark path the world has taken as he will only change the history of an alternate Universe.

The time loop scenario poses a similar problem. If all the events must happen in a way that must lead up to Liber8’s “execution”, then there is no way Alec can change the past. Allowing paradoxes to be a part of the show’s time travel physics solves that problem and allows Alec to hatch the plan he needs to save the world.

Garza kidnaps a young Alec

In “Second Wave” (Season 2, Episode 10), Jasmine Garza(Luvia Petersen) kidnaps young Alec on the orders of his future self. It seems this was future Alec’s contingency plan in case the corporate controlled future appears imminent. Unfortunately, it seems that in an act of desperation and frustration, Garza jumped the gun and acted prematurely.

Continuum Time Travel Alec and Jason

In 2077, the older Alec tells his son Jason of his plans to send Liber8 back in time to stop the corporate controlled future.


It seems that this isn’t the only plan the future Alec has put in motion. In the season finale, “Second Time”, we learn that Jason is his son and not his father as previously believed. In this scene, future Alec says:

“Because you will inherit my failure if I don’t succeed and I don’t wish that on anyone”

Could it be that he means that if he fails and is killed, Jason will be wiped out of existence when he returns to the future?

It also seems that a time traveler won’t feel the effects of his actions until he returns to the future timeline. Jason tells Kiera that:

One day, you’re going to wake up and wonder if any of it really happened.

This may mean that once they return to the future, they not only replace their future selves but eventually take on the experiences and memories of that time line as if they never went back in time.

This provides some insights to the “A Test of Time” (Season 1, Episode 5) episode when the young girl believed to be Kellog’s (Stephen Lobo) grandmother is killed by Travis. Whether this girl is really Kellog’s grandmother or not is never answered but we always assumed that as Kellog didn’t pop out of existence then Kellog was mistaken. It turns out that if Maddie (Olivia Ryan Stern) really is Kellog’s grandmother, he may pop out of existence upon his return to the future.

This also has some repercussions for Kiera herself. In the last few episodes of Season 2, Kiera has become almost obsessed with returning to 2077 and to be with her family despite Alec explaining that so many changes have happened that the future she knows may not even exist. Her best bet at ensuring the existence of her family is to stay in 2013 and see her predicament through.

What happens in the future doesn’t stay there

It would seem that whether there is one universal time-line or multiple ones lies somewhere in the middle. Escher calling Kiera the “time bomb” and Warren referring to her as a “glitch” indicates this. It seems that Kiera’s very presence is problematic.

Kiera’s presence also makes you wonder who the Freelancers are and their true goals and mission. According to Jason, humanity’s history has been guided by this enigmatic group as they seed the past with the technology that enables mankind to make the next leap froward; another example of the Bootstrap Paradox. When Warren describes his mission to Jason, we are lead to believe that the Freelancers might be the good guys — the equivalent of time cops.

But Jason believes this group is bad and might comprise individuals who manipulate history for their own benefit. It’s not clear whether Jason knew of the Freelancers before his meeting with Warren in 2077 or he picked up information about the group when he arrived in 1990. We were lead to believe that Jason’s arrival in 1990 was accidental but could his father have sent him back to investigate the circumstances of his birth and find out more about the Freelancers? Could he have discovered the existence of rogue Freelancers like Escher in the process and hence the reason why he believes his grand-father is dangerous?

As future Alec knows of the Freelancers, this could mean that this isn’t the first time any of this is happening. Not only does he know of the Freelancers from past experience but it may have happened several times in the space-time continuum — he just doesn’t “remember” it. Escher may have gone back in time to start Pyron, thereby creating the catalyst that will lead to the eventual creating of Sadtech and the dystopian corporate controlled future. This also leads young Alec to create the time-travel device and start the “family business”.

As the Freelancers are known to “interfere” in humanity’s development, it could mean that the Freelancers meant for the corporate controlled future to happen. This isn’t without consequences. Alec, realizing the horrible mistake he has made, sends Liber8 back in time to prevent this. But if the future is changed by events in the past, how would he know he has succeeded or that he even made an attempt in the future? The best way is to send a message in a bottle and this is where Kiera come in. He uses Kiera’s Mark 4 polymeric nano-composite body armor to save that message and this is where the time loop theory becomes intriguing. If this has happened before then he can send the information he needs to change the future. He can send his past and future selves the information they need, telling them what worked and what didn’t.

Time Travel in Continuum

Kiera is held prisoner in Continuum

In an unknown location and time, Kiera is held prisoner by the Freelancers with her fellow time travelers, their fates uncertain.


It seems that Contonuum’s time travel physics utilizes a single timeline. Travel back in time creates a new timeline that wipes out the old one. In several episodes, we see Kiera being dragged to a futuristic holding cell. At first, we are lead to believe that this might be a hallucinatory effect of future Alec uploading a file into Kiera’s memory but it seems that these hallucinations are very real and might be a Freelancer controlled prison.

We are never told where or even when this prison cell is. All we know is that the Freelancers are kidnapping other time-travelers. What they do with them after they are captured is anyone’s guess. If they return them to their proper place in the time line, could Kiera’s nightmares be a result of her remembering her traumatic capture from a previous time line? Or maybe she is remembering some event that is supposed to happen. The revived Curtis Chen (Terry Chen) offers no clues.

In the season’s finale, Warren and Curtis talk about “this timeline”. This indicates that the events with Liber8 and Kiera have happened several times. Exactly what the Freelancers do with their prisoners is unanswered. Do they “reinsert” them or do they keep them captive? Can we expect several prison cells all holding different versions of everyone? Are these doppelgangers connected in any way?

Fans of the show know that there is nothing easy when it comes to understanding the show. The seemingly basic premise of the “evil” Liber8 fighting to stop the distopian future hides a much deeper plot. By allowing paradoxes to be a part of the show’s physics, it appears that a much deeper plot exists — a battle between Alec and the Freelancers and where their battle is a game of chess played across space and time. The question is, are everyone just pawns or is there a bigger eventual battle where everyone plays a part to come?